Thyatira – The Great Compromise
18 “And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: ‘The words of the Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and whose feet are like burnished bronze. 19 “‘I know your works, your love and faith and service and patient endurance, and that your latter works exceed the first. 20 But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. 21 I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 22 Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works, 23 and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you according to your works. 24 But to the rest of you in Thyatira, who do not hold this teaching, who have not learned what some call the deep things of Satan, to you I say, I do not lay on you any other burden. 25 Only hold fast what you have until I come. 26 The one who conquers and who keeps my works until the end, to him I will give authority over the nations, 27 and he will rule them with a rod of iron, as when earthen pots are broken in pieces, even as I myself have received authority from my Father. 28 And I will give him the morning star. 29 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’
The city of Thyatira was a Macedonian colony. It was situated in Lydia, in Asia Minor, not far from the river Lycus, and between Sardis and Pergamum (about 56 kilometers southeast of Pergamum). Although it was a very small city it was on a major road of the Roman Empire, which made it a busy commercial centre. Everyone working in the city was a member of one or more trades. There were carpenters, dyers, sellers of goods, tent makers, etc.
In the church at Philippi, which the Apostle Paul started, there was a woman named Lydia (the name, “Lydia”, meaning “the Lydian woman”), a seller of purple cloth, who came from Thyatira – she was the first convert in Europe (Acts 16:14). The dye for the purple cloth came from a little shell fish called a murex. Crimson dye was made from the madder roots, and was also sold there. Thyatira therefore became a commercial centre for the wool trade and the dyeing industry.
Although the city had a number of temples to various gods, the principal deity of the city was Apollo (the sun god), and within his temple was an alter to a female goddess – just as in the Dark Ages when churches depicted Jesus (the Son of God) with a deified Mary.
The problem the Christians of Thyatira faced was with the trade unions. In order to work at a trade in the city Christians had to join a union, or guild, made up of pagans for the most part. The meetings of the guilds were devoted to licentious debaucheries which were connected with the worship of erotic idols of the Greek world. The British Bible scholar William Barclay aptly described the difficulty:
“These guilds met frequently, and they met for a common meal. Such a meal was, at least in part, a religious ceremony. It would probably meet in a heathen temple, and it would certainly begin with a libation to the gods, and the meal itself would largely consist of meat offered to idols. The official position of the church meant that a Christian could not attend such a meal.”
The believers of Thyatira therefore faced a major problem, in order to make a living they had to belong to a union. However, to attend the union meetings meant that they were required to become involved, or to be sorely pressured to become involved, with the worship of idols, drunkenness and sexual depravity. So, they had a very difficult choice: compromise their Christian values and morals and be able to continue working in the city, or separate themselves from the sin and then struggle to make a living. It became very difficult for believers to live in Thyatira for this very reason.
Description of Christ
“18 And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: ‘The words of the Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and whose feet are like burnished bronze’” (Rev. 2:18).
Jesus describes Himself as having eyes like flaming fire. This depicts His piercing appraisal of the hearts of mankind, a search which exposes rebellious, sinful and impure hearts. Bronze symbolises God’s rightful judgement against sin in scripture, for example: Moses erecting the bronze serpent in the wilderness (Numbers 21:5-10), the bronze altar of burnt offering (Exodus 27:1-18), and the bronze laver in the Holy Place (Exodus 30:17-21). So, the bronze feet of Jesus symbolize the rightful judgement that would fall on the church if it did not repent and shape up.
What Jesus knows and Commendation
“19 ‘I know your works, your love and faith and service and patient endurance, and that your latter works exceed the first’” (Rev. 2:19).
The Believers of Thyatira are praised for their love, faith, service, patients and works. In fact, Jesus mentions works twice; as a growing church there had been an increase in their commitment and service by their congregation. The fact that these believers had “love and faith” which Paul affirmed as “the real goals that the commandments of God should produce in believers,” (1 Timothy 1:5) was very commendable.
Rebuke and Warning
“20 ‘But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. 21 I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 22 Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works, 23 and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you according to your works’” (Rev. 2:20-23).
When I was a child, I knew that the longer my mother scolded me the worse my punishment was going to be. With the letter to the church of Thyatira recording one verse for commendation, and four verses for rebuke, you know that this church is in trouble. The Thyatira church had a false prophetess who was leading believers into compromise. It is possible that “Jezebel” was her real name, but it is more likely the name was a metaphorical reference to the Jezebel of the Old Testament — another idolatrous woman who opposed God’s ways. Rather than rebuke this false teacher and send her out of the church, the believers in Thyatira were allowing her to continue her deception, causing the church to compromise with the world.
The Apostle James warned that “faith without works is dead” (James 2:14), however, works can also be “dead” if the motive behind them is wrong. Works is not bad when done in service to the Lord, work done for self-aggrandizement, however, is dead works. Every believer has been foreordained by God for some work, as we are all priests to the Lord, with a gifting provided for by the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 2:4-5; 1 Corinthians 12:8-10; Ephesians 4:11). How we use our gift will be assessed by God, Jesus tells the church of Thyatira that He searches their “heart and mind” and will give each according to whom they served – self or God.
Who is Jezebel?
The Old Testament Jezebel was the daughter of the king of Sidon. She was the wife of King Ahab of Israel (the Northern Kingdom), and she is particularly noted for having made the worship of the god Baal popular in Israel. The Israelites came to believe that the sexual union of the Canaan gods Baal and Asherah was necessary for a productive harvest. This involved “sympathetic magic”, a belief that actions performed by worshippers would influence the actions of the god’s, this practice became the basis for religious prostitution (1 Kings 14:23-24). There were temple prostitutes, both male and female, associated with the worship of Baal. It was Jezebel who was responsible for the spread of this practice that degraded worship among the ten tribes of Israel, until it became one of the popular religions of the day. To ensure that Baal worship became the dominant faith in Israel, she had the prophets of God put to death, and also tried to kill Elijah after his famous encounter with 450 of the prophets of Baal on Mt. Carmel, when fire came down from heaven and consumed the sacrifice.
Elijah, a mighty man of God had faced with great courage 450 false prophets, but when Jezebel went after him he ran for his life. Jezebel was responsible for the murder of her neighbour Naboth, because her husband, king Ahab, wanted his vineyard. She was a ruthless, and immoral seducer of the people, and that is why Jesus selects her name for this dominant woman at Thyatira. In fulfilment of prophecy of the Old Testament (2 Kings 9:10), Jezebel ended her days by being thrown from her palace window into the courtyard below, where the dogs came and ate her body and licked up her blood (2 Kings 9:30-37).
A very important trait of a woman with a “Jezebel spirit,” is her obsessive passion for domineering and controlling others, especially in the spiritual realm. She will seek to usurp the authority of the men in the church. Also, this is a not too uncommon failing of Christian wives, who set themselves up as the “Pharisees of the household”, ensuring that their rules and laws are kept. With this understanding of a “Jezebel spirit” there should be no surprise at the revelation that liberal feminists uphold Jezebel as an example of a politically astute woman, who through the force of her will, and courage, rose to a position of authority and influence in a patriarchal society!
All the wicked women in the Bible typify the woman Jezebel in some way – the sexual-immoral Moabite women in Numbers 25, Potiphar’s wife, Delilah, Queen Athaliah, Herodias, the seductress in Proverbs 5 and 7. What they all had in common was the tendency to manipulate people, mostly men, to get their own way.
The Jezebel of Thyatira as the “false prophetess,” is the link with the trade unions of the city. Apparently, Jezebel had begun to teach that it was all right for them to go along with the requirements of the guild, that they needed to submit to the pressures of the world around in order to make a living, and that God would understand and overlook this. Her philosophy was what you often hear today: “Business is business”. If business practices collide with your Christian principles, then you must compromise your principles – because you have to make a living.
Queen Jezebel caused the Northern Kingdom to sin by promoting the worship of Baal, and the partaking in the immoral practices associate with his worship. The Jezebel of Thyatira was promoting the membership to trade unions, which would require the immoral practices associate with the worship of pagan gods.
The punishment that our Lord brings against the teaching of the Thyatira Jezebel, reflects the troubles that compromise with the world will always bring. There are three parties involved:
- There is Jezebel herself. Jesus says: “I will cast her on a bed of suffering”. There is definitely a note of irony or sarcasm in this statement, brought about by righteous anger. In effect, Jesus is saying: “The woman Jezebel likes beds, so I will give her one, a bed of suffering and pain”. It would constitute her only chance to realize what was happening to her, and lead her to change.
- Then there is the second group to which Jesus says: “those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation (great affliction), unless they repent of her works”. Those that fall for the Jezebel deception, and compromise their beliefs, becoming involved in immorality and idolatry, will be held accountable. The most likely consequence of their actions is some form of sexual disease. Gonorrhoea and syphilis were well-known and widespread in the ancient world. Today, of course, we face far worse consequences – from the six or seven sexually transmitted diseases of the sixties – before the “free love” promiscuity – there are now over forty sexually transmitted diseases, including the plague of AIDS that results largely from sexual immorality.
- To the third group the Lord says: “I will strike her children with death”. Children represent those who follow the example of Jezebel, and not only practice immorality, but who teach it as well. The judgement ruled against Jezebel’s children has two possible outcomes. Firstly, as they are religious but not righteous, the “death,” therefore may refer to spiritual death, i.e., “the second death,” of the unsaved, the destruction in the lake of fire described in Revelation 20:14 and 21:8. Theirs is a commitment to evil that makes repentance difficult. The second, and most popular understanding, is that just as the Thyatira Jezebel was to be cast into a sick bed, her “children” would also die of illness. There are consequences for unrepentant sin, and there is sin that leads to death, which is the extreme sin the Apostle John warns against in 1 John 5:16–17. Possibly, the Lord emphasized the sin within the church, with her follows suffering the affliction of STDs, while her “children,” died.
Satan’s Plan: Stage 3
There is a sinister adage that says, that if you are going to poison someone’s food, start with small doses, and then slowly increase the amount of poison – eventually the person being poisoned will enjoy the taste. This was the strategic plan of Satan, while in Pergamum the doors were opened for the influence of paganism in the church, in Thyatira the doors have been thrown wide open. The presence of Jezebel, and her encouragement to compromise with the world has led to deep sin. The corruption of the Church took time, but Satan was patient.
What you have and Counsel
“Now I say to the rest of you in Thyatira, to you who do not hold to her teaching and have not learned Satan’s so-called deep secrets, ‘I will not impose any other burden on you, except to hold on to what you have until I come’” (Rev. 2:24-25).
Jesus makes an important distinction between those that follow the teachings of the Thyatira Jezebel, and those that refuse to compromise. “Satan’s so called deep secrets,” are his deceptions that are antagonistic to the Word of God, and cause man to compromise with the world. Gnosticism – man’s wisdom – is always at odds with God’s wisdom, and ultimately man’s wisdom has as its foundation Satan’s deceptions.
When Jesus instructs his Church to “hold onto what you have until I return,” He is commenting on what they have been taught in the Word of God, as opposed to the teachings of Jezebel. The message is clear, God hates it when His Word is compromised by man’s wisdom, His Church is to be founded on God’s Word, and not to be swayed by popular philosophies.
“26 The one who conquers and who keeps my works until the end, to him I will give authority over the nations, 27 and he will rule them with a rod of iron, as when earthen pots are broken in pieces, even as I myself have received authority from my Father” (Rev. 2: 26-27).
Once more the promise from the Lord is focusing our attention on eternity. Those believers who are victorious in their walk with the Lord, will receive authority over the nations in the Kingdom. The parable of the Ten Minas in Luke 19 gives us an understanding of what Jesus meant when he promised “authority over the nations”. In the parable, a nobleman leaves for a foreign country in order to be made king. Before he left, he gave ten minas to ten of his servants. A mina was worth 100 denarii, just over three months’ wages, and the future king said, “Put this money to work . . . until I come back.” The nobleman in the parable is Jesus, who left this world, but who will return some day as King. On his return the King questions the servants to find out what they have done with their minas. The interpretation is that the Lord has given us a valuable commission, and we must be faithful to serve Him until He returns. Upon His return, Jesus will ascertain the faithfulness of His own people (see Romans 14:10–12). It is important to note that in the parable the faithful servants are rewarded with cities – the servant that had earned ten more minors is rewarded with ten cities in the King’s kingdom, and the servant that had earned five more minas is given five cities. This parable ties in with the promise of Jesus to the believers of Thyatira to have “authority over the nations”, having authority to rule over these cities “with a rod of iron,” will indeed see this prophecy fulfilled.
To fully understand the promise Jesus makes here, we need to look at Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians where he writes:
“If anyone builds on this foundation (Jesus Christ) using gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay or straw, their (believers) work will be shown for what it is, because the Day (Bema judgement seat) will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test the quality of each person’s work. If what has been built survives, the builder will receive a reward. If it is burned up, the builder will suffer loss but yet will be saved — even though only as one escaping through the flames” (3:13-15).
The Bible continually mentions rewards that await the believer who serves the Lord faithfully in this world: Jesus told us to “store up for yourselves treasures in heaven” (Matthew 6:20). He linked this command to the desire of our hearts: “Where your treasure is, there your heart will be also” (Matthew 6:21). A “great” reward is promised to those who are persecuted for Jesus’ sake. Various crowns are mentioned (2 Tim. 4:8). Jesus says that He will bring rewards with Him when He returns (Rev. 22:12).
The promise to the believers of Thyatira, and the parable of the Ten minas, gives us an indication that the rewards spoken of in these scriptures is our ultimate position of authority in the Kingdom, which will be a continuation of service to God. We are to treasure the Lord Jesus most of all, when Jesus is our treasure, we will commit our resources — our money, our time, our talents — to His work in this world. Our motivation for what we do is important (1 Cor. 10:31). Paul encourages believers that God has an eternal reward for those who are motivated to serve Christ: “Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for human masters, since you know that you will receive an inheritance from the Lord as a reward. It is the Lord Christ you are serving” (Col. 3:23–24).
“And I will give him the morning star. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches” (Rev. 2:28-29).
The “morning star” is a star that appears just before the morning, while night still lingers. The true believers in the church of Thyatira were surrounded by immorality and pagan activities, but Jesus encourages them with the promise of a future time when they would move out of spiritual darkness into the radiant light of His presence. This is a reference to the rapture of the Church, Scripture warns that there will be an increase in apostacy in the world in the Last Days, but the wonderful promise is that the Church, the Bride of Christ, will be raised out of that dark apostacy into the glorious light of their Bridegroom.
The Thyatira Age
Prophetic application: The Dark Ages (AD 590-1517)
While the letter to Pergamum is a prophetic pointer to the first stages of doctrinal errors in the Roman Catholic Church as a result of compromise with paganism and man’s wisdom, the letter to the Church of Thyatira records the adultery of the Catholic Church with Mystery Babylon Religion (from about AD 600). In the letter to Thyatira Jesus warns of their toleration of a woman prophetess named Jezebel within their church. As we have seen, the name refers to the Jezebel of 1 and 2 Kings, who was the wife of King Ahab of Israel. Jezebel was a type of Semiramis, the wife of Nimrod. The two rulers of Babylon were the creators of “Mystery Babylon Religion”. Semiramis had the same evil qualities as Jezebel, leading the people into immorality, idolatry, false teachings and occult practices. It is worth comparing the two women to understand that Jezebel was a continuation of the influence of Semiramis and Mystery Babylon Religion:
Table Comparing Semiramis and Jezebel
|She allowed herself to become an instrument of Satan in establishing the pagan Babylonian religion.||She allowed herself to become an instrument of Satan by enforcing the pagan Babylonian worship of Baal (an alter ego of Nimrod) in Israel.|
|Lived a life in rebellion to, and opposition of Yahweh.||Lived a life in rebellion to, and opposition of Yahweh.|
|A flawed character being immoral, decadent, depraved, dishonest, egocentric, showing a lack of conscience and using her status to violate social laws.||A flawed character being immoral, decadent, depraved, dishonest, egocentric, showing a lack of conscience, using her status to violate social laws and prone to victimizing with no empathy shown to others.|
|She was seductive using her charm and beauty to manipulate others to do her will.||She was seductive using her charm and beauty to manipulate others to do her will.|
|She had political power and influence which she used to the maximum.||She had political power and influence which she used to the maximum.|
|Responsible for the establishment of the worship of man as god and idolatry and was instrumental in the spiritual, and moral degradation of mankind.||Aggressively encouraged the worship of Baal and idolatry in Israel, and was instrumental in the spiritual and moral degradation of the people living in the Northern Kingdom.|
|Introduced the false doctrine that man could be god, idolatry and polytheism.||Encouraged false doctrine and idolatry in rebellion against God.|
|Was totally unrepentant in her rebellion and sin.||Was totally unrepentant in her rebellion and sin.|
|Was completely domineering, manipulative and controlling of others.||Obsessive passion for domineering, manipulative and controlling others|
|She had a focused determination, to ensure that she always had her own way, no matter what the consequences and who may be hurt in the process. Manipulating and deceiving to ensure she stayed in power.||Her manipulation of the judicial system in her plot to murder Naboth for his vineyard (1 Kings 21), revealed that she had a focused determination to ensure that she always had her own way, no matter what the consequences and who may be hurt in the process.|
The fourth letter reveals that it is within the Church of Thyatira that Mystery Babylon had taken hold. The letter to the church at Pergamum revealed that the teachings of Balaam (compromise with paganism), and the teachings of the Nicolaitans (traditions of men) opened the door for the corruption of Mystery Babylon to take root in the Church. The corruption that started in the Pergamum age multiplied during the Dark Ages of the Thyatira period. As we saw in the study on Pergamum, paganism in the Roman Catholic Church started with the Roman Emperor Constantine’s “conversion” to Christianity. However, it is Pope Gregory I (AD 540-604) who is considered to have established the Papacy in Catholicism. This introduced many heresies into the Church, including:
- The Bishop of Rome claimed superiority by his presence in the city that was home to the Emperor, and reinforced this claim with the doctrine of apostolic succession – that all Roman Bishops were in the line of Peter as head of the Church. Therefore, when the Pope speaks from the chair of Peter, he speaks with an authority greater than scripture. This belief eventually lead to the belief that when the Pope speaks from this position of authority on a particular issue or doctrine, he is infallible. The Roman Catholic Church refers to it as speaking ex cathedra. This power of Ex-Cathedra then ensured the continued introduction of heresies into the Church, as man’s wisdom replaced God’s Word.
- That the Pope has the title of “Holy Father,” which reinforces his position as pontifex maximus – the bridge-maker between mankind and God. Jesus said “call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven” (Matt. 23:9). The Pope is also called the “Vicar of Christ,” which means he is in place of Christ, this then usurps the Holy Spirit who was sent to take the place of Jesus (John 14:16-17). On his official appointment, the Pope is crowned with a triple crown, making him a king-high priest, the Church has only one King-High Priest and that is Jesus – to believe otherwise is an abomination to God. Kings of Israel and Judah that took on the role of high priest were severely punished: Saul offered a sacrifice in 1 Samuel 13, and Uzziah entered the temple of the Lord to burn incense on the altar of incense (2 Chronicles 26:18).
- Purgatory, a place of purification and temporary punishment, was introduced by Pope Gregory I in AD 593. This new doctrine proved to be an excellent way to extort money out of the grief and suffering of families who had lost loved ones, who then had to pay for mass to be said, to pray that the soul would be purified so that it may travel to heaven.
- Latin was required to be used in worship as official liturgy, and prayers offered to Mary, dead saints and angels in AD 600.
- Power of Popes was conferred by Pepin in AD 750. Temporal power being that the Pope has authority over the whole world, and therefore has the power to make laws that govern mankind.
- AD 786 the veneration of the cross, images and relics was authorized.
- AD 850 saw the introduction of holy water.
- In AD 995 saints were canonised.
- The Catholic Mary (Jezebel) became entrenched as the centre of Catholic worship during this time. The title of Theotokos “Mother of God” is given to Mary at the council of Ephesus in AD 431. Then the doctrine of “perpetual virginity” was introduced in AD 451 at the council Chalcedon. This set up the next step which moved Mary firmly to the centre of Roman Catholic adoration. In about AD 1050, the focus of the Catholics’ prayers becomes Mary with the introduction of the rosary. She therefore takes prominence in the hearts of Catholics as their mediator. Also, on praying to Mary, the faithful Catholic expects that she hears their prayers and ensures that the prayers are answered. This, then, attributes a position of deity to her.
- The 11th century saw the mass made a sacrifice, and attendance obligatory. The sun worship of Constantine can clearly be seen in the monstrance used to carry the eucharist. The “Jesus cookie” is carried in a procession to be adored by the congregation.
The focus of the rebuke by Jesus in the letter to the church of Thyatira was on the sexual immorality and the eating of food sacrificed to idols, which was encourage in the church by the woman labelled Jezebel. These two heresies are seen in the Roman Catholic Church during the Dark Ages. The doctrine of celibate priest was introduced into the Church by Augustine, who was heavily influenced by Plutonic philosophy, and believed sex was sinful. The idea that nuns should be married to Jesus, and priests remain celibate is not Scriptural. This forced celibacy has caused much sexual immorality within the Roman Catholic Church, which the hierarchy of the Roman Church has continually tried to hide from the public. This is a problem that continues to this day – In 2002 it was revealed that cases of child abuse in the Roman Catholic Church were widespread. The sexual abuses committed by priests and nuns include paedophilia, with children from three years old to fourteen. These cases included sodomy, and oral penetration, and there have been criminal prosecutions of the abusers and civil lawsuits against the Church’s dioceses and parishes.
In 2015 the Academy Award winning movie “Spotlight,” portrayed the investigation by The Boston Globe into abuse in the Roman Catholic Church in the city of Boston. The Boston Globe’s in-depth reporting was the central subject of the film. The sexual abuse scandal in Boston archdiocese was part of a series of the Roman Catholic Church’s sexual abuse cases in the United States that revealed widespread wrongdoing in the American Roman Catholic Church. In early 2002, The Boston Globe published results of an investigation that led to the criminal prosecutions of five Roman Catholic priests and thrust the sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy into the national spotlight. The Globe’s coverage encouraged other victims to come forward with allegations of abuse, resulting in numerous lawsuits and more criminal cases. The journalists of the Boston Globe estimated that in a diocese of twenty-two hundred priests, that a figure closer to ten per cent, that is 220 priests, were molesting children.
In Catholicism the bread and wine of communion are magically changed into the actual body, spirit, soul and blood of Jesus by an incantation performed over them by a priest. According to the Catholic Church the eucharist is not just the body of Jesus, it is Jesus. This belief most likely originated from Mithraism, which was the dominant religion in the Roman Empire from the first to the 5th century AD. The worship of Mithras required the eating of the flesh and drinking the blood of a bull, this was done in the belief that their god Mithras was present within the flesh and the blood of the bull. Theophagy – the eating of one’s god in order to attain salvation – practiced by the Catholic Church is a pagan belief, and can be interpreted as eating food sacrificed to idols. Plus, the adoration by Roman Catholics of the eucharist while being carried in the monstrance is idol worship.
|Summary Topic||Thyatira 2:18-29|
|Period described||Papal supremacy of Dark Ages, AD 590-1517|
|Opening||To the angel of the church . . . write|
|Description of Christ||Eyes of fire, feet like brass; searches minds|
|What Jesus knows||Jesus knows their works|
|Commendation||love, faith, service, and patient endurance|
|Rebuke||Jezebel with immorality permitted|
|Warning||Jezebel thrown into sickbed, children killed|
|Counsel||Hold fast till I come|
|What you have||The rest do not have false doctrine, the deep things of Satan|
|Promise||Authority over nations|
|Other promises||The morning star|
|Closing||Listen to what the Spirit says to the churches|