Four Hebrew Youths in Babylon:
The Case for a Sixth Century Dating of Daniel
As Daniel is an exceedingly important book in the study of prophecy, it is necessary to cover criticisms against the book to reassure the reader of the authenticity of the book, and that it is Holy Spirit inspired Scripture. The reason being that the book of Daniel has been dated in the mid-sixth century BC by both Jews and Christians scholars from the earliest times, but as was mentioned in the introductory lesson on Daniel, there are a number of liberal theologians who discredit the book of Daniel. They claim that the book was written during the Maccabean period as a means of encouraging the Jews during persecution by the Seleucid Emperor, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The message being that just as God saved Daniel and his three friends from his enemies, so he would save all Israel during the oppression of Antiochus. Their belief is that the prophecies in Daniel are too accurate to be true, and that there are a number of errors in the book which point to a later writing.
The late-dating of Daniel is primarily based on claims that:
- Daniel contains historical inaccuracies concerning sixth century kings and events.
- Daniel contains Greek words that wouldn’t have been possible if it had been written in the sixth century.
- Daniel’s predictions of the future are “too accurate” to be authentic prophecy. Therefore, they must have been written after the fact.
The above three points are taken from form Dr. Ralph F. Wilson’s appendix 3 on Daniel: http://www.jesuswalk.com/books/daniel.htm. (11/10.2019).
1. Questions of Historical Accuracy
The spear head of the attack on the veracity of Daniel, is that it is full of historical inaccuracies. Which, for the critics, is evidence that the book was written at a later date by an individual or team of writers, who did not have an accurate understanding of the historical events of Daniel’s time. The evidence put forward is:
1.1. The siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in Jehoiakim’s third year
The very first verse of the book of Daniel gives historical context:
“In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it.” (1:1)
Dr. Ralph F. Wilson explains in his appendix 3 on his Bible study on the book of Daniel that “this is disputed on two grounds: 1. that Nebuchadnezzar’s assault on Jerusalem took place in the fourth year of Jehoiakim’s reign (Jeremiah 46:2), not in the third year (Daniel 1:1); and 2. that Nebuchadnezzar didn’t actually besiege Jerusalem” (1).
Dr Wilson goes on to give the explanation, writing: “The reason for the discrepancy between the third and fourth year is a difference in reckoning systems, pure and simple. Israeli and Egyptian reckoning (most common in the Old Testament) counts the months between a king’s accession and the new year as a complete year. The Babylonians, however, began to count a king’s reign from the first new year after accession. Since the Book of Daniel is written from the point of view of a court officer in Babylon, using the Babylonian system makes good sense. In fact, it is an argument for the early dating of Daniel”(2).
Then, although the City of Jerusalem capitulated to the demands of the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar, this would have only taken place after a commanding presence of the Babylonian force.
- (1) Dr. Ralph F. Wilson’s appendix 3 on Daniel: http://www.jesuswalk.com/books/daniel.htm. (11/10.2019).
- (2) Dr. Ralph F. Wilson’s appendix 3 on Daniel: http://www.jesuswalk.com/books/daniel.htm. (11/10.2019).
2.2. King Belshazzar
Critics of the historical accuracy of Daniel point to the perceived error of referring to Belshazzar as “king” in Daniel 5:1, where it was actually his father Nabonidus (556-539 BC) who ruled Babylon. The explanation for why Belshazzar was on the throne in Babylon, is that he was made the vice regent by Nabonidus, while Nabonidus was away doing what he felt was necessary to secure the Empire. The Medes had become a major threat to the Babylonian control of trade roots, and this adversely effected the economy of the Empire. So, after three years of ruling in Babylon, Nabonidus left to establish a firm control over the southern part of his Empire, by seizing the oasis Tema. This oasis being in a very arid region, had become a key centre for a number of trade routes through the area. There Nabonidus began establishing a city that he wanted to become the second most important in the Empire. It was while Nabonidus was at Tema, that Cyrus with the massive Medo-Persian army set siege to Babylon.
The promise made by Belshazzar to make Daniel “the third highest ruler in the kingdom (5:16),” if he interpreted the inscription, once more proves the historical accuracy of Daniel. The promise meant that only Nabonidus and Belshazzar would be superior to Daniel in the Empire.
3.3. Darius the Mede (5:30; 6:28)
The fact that Daniel is the only historical source that names Darius the Mede as the ruler of Babylon, places suspicion on the accuracy of the book’s account of Daniel in the lion’s den. Two possible explanations for the identity of Darius the Mede have been put forward:
- D.J. Wiseman argues that Darius the Mede was merely an alternative title for Cyrus the Persian. In this case, 6:28 would be translated (legitimately): “So this Daniel prospered during the reign of Darius, namely the reign of Cyrus the Persian.”
- The more likely explanation is given by Whitcomb, who argues that Darius the Mede was in fact Gubaru, the governor of Babylon and the region Beyond the River (Abar-nahara), exercising royal powers in Babylon and hence not improperly called “king.” We still don’t know anything about this Darius the Mede from contemporary documents.
- The information on Darius the Mede is adapted from Dr. Ralph F. Wilson’s appendix 3 on Daniel: http://www.jesuswalk.com/books/daniel.htm. (11/10.2019).
A Historical confirmation on the accuracy of Daniel:
On his way South, with the aim of conquering Egypt, Alexander the Great captured Gaza and then made his way inland to Jerusalem. Flavius Josephus, the famous Jewish historian who wrote The Antiquities of the Jews, recorded that Alexander met with Jaddua, the high priest, who showed him the recordings of Daniel’s visions:
“And when the Book of Daniel was showed to him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended.”
Josephus’ historical record reveals that the book of Daniel existed at the time of Alexander the Great (332 BC), which was well before the rule of Antiochus IV (175 to 164 BC).
2. Questions of Language
Archaeology has the amazing ability of proving itself wrong, ie. as more and more historical evidence is discovered over time, historians are continual having to revaluate previously held beliefs. This is also the case with the problem of the languages used in Daniel. Aramaic was the common language of the Babylonians, and just as the Oxford English Dictionary is having to continually be updated with the development of new words in the English language, the language of Aramaic evolved over time. So, scholars have claimed that the language used in Daniel is from a later period. However, with the advancement in studies of Aramaic it has been found that the Aramaic used in Daniel was common in the royal courts and chancelleries of Babylon from the time of Daniel, which is a confirmation of the accuracy of Daniel.
Then there is also the fact that the book of Daniel is written using three different languages, Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. The use of Greek in the book of Daniel is a further target of attack by later date scholars, who claim that the Greek language would not have been spoken in Babylon during Daniel’s time, and it is therefore evidence the book was written during the Greek occupation of Judah by the Seleucid kingdom. The explanation is simple, the Greek words used in Daniel are for the names of musical instruments, so although Greek was not spoken in Babylon, contact had been made with Greek colonies which by this time dotted the coast line of the Mediterranean. There is also evidence that Greek mercenaries were involved in the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC, which took place before Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Judea. So, a number of musical instruments being used in Babylon were of Greek origin, and therefore had Greek names. A modern example would be the use of the Indian guitar called the Sitar in Western music, which was made popular by George Harrison of the Beatles.
3. Theological attack
According to the liberal theologians the Book of Daniel is too accurate, and in their understanding of theology, there are no miracles. Liberal theology has its genesis in the Enlightenment, when theologians were influenced by philosophers such as Immanuel Kant in the Age of Reason. The Enlightenment philosophers believed that you could apply reason to all aspects of life. God became a distant deistic God who did not interfere in the actions of mankind. The Age of Reason looked at natural laws governing nature, and miracles had no place in their ideology. The same logic then applies to prophecy which is given in dreams and visions, as in the book of Daniel – for the liberal theologian this also cannot then be true.
The age of reason brought about a deistic God, who sits on the side-lines and watches events unfold, while the book of Daniel forcefully reveals God in his Apocalyptic grandeur, actively involved in His creation and controlling the events of mankind. Thus, Daniel presents an image of God that humanistic liberalism cannot tolerate.
Looting the Temple (1:1-2)
“In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. And the Lord delivered Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, along with some of the articles from the temple of God. These he carried off to the temple of his god in Babylonia (the land of Shinar [KJV; ASV]) and put in the treasure house of his god”.
Note that the scripture reveals that the Items from the temple are taken back to the “land of Shinar,” a term used in Genesis 11 for the area of the city of Babylon, the city of rebellion against God, and idol worship. The Babylonians defied God at the tower of Babel, and now they have looted His temple. Mystery Babylon religion continually tries to usurp the reign of God in people’s lives.
Daniel was a contemporary of Jeremiah (started ministry in 626 BC), and may well have heard Jeremiah warn the people of Jerusalem of the coming judgement. Jeremiah pronounced judgement on idol worship (Jer. 1:13-18; 2:11); warned against wicked thoughts (Jer. 4:14); preached about refusal to receive correction (Jer. 5:3); and pointed to the gross and scandalous waywardness of Judah’s spiritual leaders.
Semiramis and Nimrod
The origins of Mary worship has its roots in the queen of Babylon at the time of the Genesis 11 Tower of Babel, Semiramis. It is believed that the name Semiramis is a Hellenized form of “Sammur-amat”, a Sumerian name which means “gift of the sea.” Babylonian mythology has Semiramis floating to the shores of Mesopotamia as an egg which is then hatched by doves. Hence the egg is one of the symbols of Semiramis, and it is why Astarte, an alter ego of Semiramis (referred to as Ashtoreth by the Jews), is associated with the egg, which is today referred to as an Easter egg. In Hebrew the initial element of “Sammur-amat” is “Sammur,” which is translated as “Shinar.” In Hebrew, Semiramis is then referred to as Shinar, so when Scripture writes of the land of Shinar, it is indicating Nimrod’s empire, which upon his death was taken over and ruled by his wife Semiramis.
The two main Catholic holy days, Christmas and Easter, are pagan celebrations that are connected to Nimrod and Semiramis:
- In paganism the birth of the sun was believed to be on the 25th December, four days after the summer solstice, which occurs on the 21st of December, as this is when the hours of daylight start to lengthen in the Northern hemisphere. In Babylonian mythology Tammuz was worshiped as the reincarnation of the sun god “Nimrod,” and his birthday was recognized as being December 25th.
- Semiramis is remembered by pagans when they celebrate the spring (Vernal) equinox festival of Astarte – now known as Easter.
Nebuchadnezzar arrives at the gates of Jerusalem in 605 BC, and Jehoiakim capitulates, opening the gates of the city to the Babylonians. The Babylonians being polytheists wanted to keep in good standard with all gods. Their god Marduk, as with pagan belief was a territorial god, so precious items from the temple were taken back to the Babylonian pantheon, where YHWH could also be venerated as a lesser god than the conquering Babylonian god Marduk. This act of transfer was also proof of the greater power of the Babylonians, ie. they could take over another nation’s god, which was evidence that their god was greater than the defeated peoples god. It was a disgrace for the nation of Judah for their temple to be looted, but it also was a disgrace for God. He became a God who could not protect His people – a stigma. Just as divorce is a social stigma, God carried the stigma of the divorce from His chosen people. He also had to bear the ridicule of being a lesser god than Marduk.
Daniel Exiled to Babylon (1:3-5)
“3 Then the king commanded Ashpenaz, his chief eunuch, to bring some of the people of Israel, both of the royal family[a] and of the nobility, 4 youths without blemish, of good appearance and skillful in all wisdom, endowed with knowledge, understanding learning, and competent to stand in the king’s palace, and to teach them the literature and language of the Chaldeans. 5 The king assigned them a daily portion of the food that the king ate, and of the wine that he drank. They were to be educated for three years, and at the end of that time they were to stand before the king”.
For the people of God who are exiled during this tumultuous time, it means being physically displaced and relocated to a completely foreign culture that doesn’t honour the God of Israel, his law, or his people’s customs. It is a time of learning to live faithful lives within a foreign culture and value system.
This is the first of three waves of exiles deported from Judah to Babylon. This first group includes Daniel and his friends (1:1). Jehoiakim also begins giving tribute to Nebuchadnezzar in 605 BC (2 Kings 24:1). Babylonian troops remain in the area, invading Syria in 604 BC, Ashkelon in 603 BC, and clash with Pharaoh Neco on the borders of Egypt in 601 BC.
Since Babylon forces Judah to become a vassal state, it is customary to extract tribute to be carried to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar takes plunder from the Temple, and demands that young men from the nobility and royal families are to be deported to Babylon to be trained for service in his court. The removal of the elite also leaves the subjugated city without leadership, and the captives probably also serve as hostages to ensure that Judah doesn’t rebel against Babylon.
Daniel and Friends in Babylon (1:3-5)
The young men from the royal family and the nobility of Judah, were completely cut off from their home and raised in a new environment. There they would be indoctrinated in the ways of their new country, and would eventually become dedicated to their new benevolent master, and they would become fiercely loyal advisors and civil servants. The goal was to strengthen the state of Babylon and weaken the subjugated state. To fulfill his masters wish, Ashpenaz, the chief of the court officials, would be looking for the following qualifications among the young captive men:
- The first wave of exiles were from royal families and the elite of Jerusalem, so they would be well versed in court etiquette and protocol, and able to function in the royal court.
- Those young men who showed intelligence and an ability to absorb the information and teachings of the Babylonian culture. The boys being teenagers would be soft clay, easily moulded in the ways of Babylon. Daniel and his friends were around 15 years old, so Daniel lived through the entire period of the exile, being 83 when he received his last vision 537 BC.
- Appearance before the king at court required that the young men were presentable and had no physical defects.
The exile of the elite of Jerusalem’s royal household had been prophesied by Isaiah to the then king, Hezekiah, many years before:
“And some of your descendants, your own flesh and blood who will be born to you, will be taken away, and they will become eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.” (Isaiah 39:7)
On the point of whether the young men were made eunuch’s Dr. R. Wilson makes this observation: “Were they actually made eunuchs? Perhaps, but we don’t know. The noun sārîs can mean either “eunuch” or, “official,” depending on the context. We do know, however, that in the ancient Near East, especially in Persia, eunuchs were considered to be more loyal servants to their master, since they had no families to support or in-laws to promote in court” (1).
- (1) Dr. Ralph F. Wilson’s: Four Hebrew Youths in Babylon (Daniel 1). http://www.jesuswalk.com/daniel/1_youths.htm (11/10.2019).
A New Name (1:6-7)
“Among these were some from Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. The chief official gave them new names: to Daniel, the name Belteshazzar; to Hananiah, Shadrach; to Mishael, Meshach; and to Azariah, Abednego.” (1:6-7)
It was a common practice of the time for the victor to change the names of their captives. There are several reasons for why this was done:
- To honour their gods or king.
- To emphasize their subjects’ new, subservient role.
- To assimilate them into the conquering culture.
- To transliterate the name into the host language, as a matter of convenience.
An example of captives having their names changed by the conqueror was given in the introduction, when Necho, the Egyptian pharaoh, replaced Jehoahaz with Eliakim as a “vassal king”. As Eliakim means “raised by God,” with the “El” meaning “God of Gods,” Neco a pagan, changed the “El” to “Jeho,” specific to the God of the Jews. Necho was not going to recognise Yahweh, the God of a vassal king as being supreme. As is evident in the Old Testament, the names of Hebrews were very meaningful and significant for the individual. In some instances, a name was used as a special message from God to His people, while at other times they were prophetic, or had a revelation about the character of the individual. So, a change in name, when it held such great significance, would have been distressing for the young men of Judah.
|Hebrew Name||Babylonian Name|
|Daniel, “God is my judge.”||Belteshazzar, “Protect his life” or “Lady, protect the king.” Belet was the wife of Bel, a Babylonian god (4:8).|
|Hananiah, “Yahweh has been gracious.”||Shadrach, “command of Aku” (Sumerian moon god) or “I am very fearful (of god).”|
|Mishael, “Who is what God is?”||Meshach, “I am of little account.”|
|Azariah, “Yahweh has helped.”||Abednego, “Servant of the shining one,” perhaps a word play that includes the god Nabû|
- The above table is taken from Dr. Ralph F. Wilson’s teaching: Four Hebrew Youths in Babylon (Daniel 1). http://www.jesuswalk.com/daniel/1_youths.htm (11/10.2019).
Daniel Resolves Not to Defile Himself (1:8-10)
“8 But Daniel resolved that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, or with the wine that he drank. Therefore he asked the chief of the eunuchs to allow him not to defile himself. 9 And God gave Daniel favour and compassion in the sight of the chief of the eunuchs, 10 and the chief of the eunuchs said to Daniel, “I fear my lord the king, who assigned your food and your drink; for why should he see that you were in worse condition than the youths who are of your own age? So you would endanger my head with the king.”
As captives the four young men had to be subservient to their captors, being led in chains, indoctrinated into a new culture and having their names changed, but on the issue of defilement Daniel takes a firm stance. Daniel emerges as the leader of the four young men here. Daniel – whose name means “God is my judge” – is the one who comes to a firm conviction concerning possible defilement, and the one who speaks to the official charged with their care. The command from God was that Jews, a chosen people, were not to defile themselves, no matter what the circumstance.
Daniel and his friends had been required to compromise by accepting many changes in their lives, but they were not going to compromise their covenant relationship with God. Their rejection of the royal food and wine was because:
- Both food and wine were offered to idols in Babylon.
- Eating unclean animals, such as pork or horse meat, was common in Babylon. Also, Jewish law required draining of blood from meat (Leviticus 3:17; 11:1-47; 17:10-14).
Some vegetarians have suggested that Daniel’s diet is to model the superiority of a vegetarian diet and abstinence from alcoholic beverage, however, later in life Daniel seems to have eaten meat and drunk wine, except when fasting (10:3).
Psalm 1, the introductory Psalm does not start with “I will praise you, O Lord with all of my heart” (Psalm 138:1), but rather a sound instruction that worship is more than songs of Praise. Obedience to God is the highest form of worship, and carries the greatest blessings. That is why Psalm 1 is the introductory psalm.
“Blessed is the one who does not walk in step with the wicked” (Psalm 1:1)
Some have called the first psalm the Psalm of Psalms, as the Psalms unlock the Bible’s meaning. The very first verse defines the whole of the Book of Psalms “Blessed is the one who does not walk in step with the wicked (ungodly)…” Those that obey God’s word are “blessed” (makarios), which is translated as blessed, or sometimes as happy. True happiness comes from being blessed by God, and to be blessed by God one needs to walk in His ways. The psalmist uses the verb “walk” to describe the choice the individual makes, as our choices follow a path of actions.
Note that “blessed” is plural, there is more than one blessing involved in walking with God and walking with God is a prerequisite for the blessings. So, Daniel and his three friends are determined to walk a path of righteousness, so they, by doing so, will attain the blessings of God.
The chief official was well aware that his life depended upon his performing his duties to the king’s high standards, so, although he is sympathetic towards Daniel and his friends’ request, he declines their petition.
Daniel’s Ten-Day Test (1:11-16)
“11 Then Daniel said to the steward whom the chief of the eunuchs had assigned over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, 12 “Test your servants for ten days; let us be given vegetables to eat and water to drink. 13 Then let our appearance and the appearance of the youths who eat the king’s food be observed by you, and deal with your servants according to what you see.” 14 So he listened to them in this matter, and tested them for ten days. 15 At the end of ten days it was seen that they were better in appearance and fatter in flesh than all the youths who ate the king’s food. 16 So the steward took away their food and the wine they were to drink, and gave them vegetables.”
The wisdom and character of Daniel is evident in his approach to a very difficult problem, ie. Daniel doesn’t give up when his petition is rejected. Daniel comes up with a solution, a ten-day trial. Daniel was a man that lived by conviction not convenience, and when God’s faithful ones make a stand on biblical convictions, God blesses them.
The experiment is successful and Daniel and his friends are able to serve both their king Nebuchadnezzar and God. God is able to protect his faithful ones from being swallowed up in pagan ideology.
- The term for vegetables is a Hebrew generic term for grains to beans and everything in between.
- The Overseer would have been happy that the experiment was successful as he then gets to keep the meat for himself.
God’s Plans Trump the Plans of Man
The instruction from Nebuchadnezzar regarding Daniel and his friends, was that they were to attend Babylonian university, and qualify with a degree in Babylonian culture. The overseer was required to:
“…teach them the literature and language of the Chaldeans (Babylonians [NIV]) … They were to be educated for three years, and at the end of that time they were to stand before the king” (1:4, 5).
While Nebuchadnezzar had singled out these four young men for his plans and purposes, God also had plans for the four young men, and God’s plans always trump man’s plans:
“17 As for these four youths, God gave them learning and skill in all literature and wisdom, and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams” (1:17).
Daniel receives his gifting in Babylon. He is trained in the black arts and occult of Babylon mystery religion, yet remains faithful to God. Scripture is making it patiently clear that Daniel remained unaffected by the daily indoctrination that he was having to endure, which included his rejecting non-kosher food from the kings table that has been sacrificed to idols.
The narrator attributes the young Judeans “knowledge and understanding,” not to their Babylonian education, but to God. Education can be used to increase knowledge and to indoctrinate people, but it does not necessarily impart wisdom. The four Hebrew men are blessed with a command of all that the Babylonian empire can teach them, but they are also taught wisdom by God.
God has great plans for the four young men, he will use them to influence the kings who sit on the throne of the city for decades into the future. Daniel is given the gift of prophecy by God, including the ability to “understand visions and dreams of all kinds”. This ability not only influenced the kings that he served under, but also the nation of Israel, and the future Church of the Messiah. The book of Daniel gives incredible insight into the future of Israel, and the ruling powers that will be given control of the promised land by God, stretching from his own time, right through to the Last Days and the establishment of the promised Kingdom.
The Hebrew Youths Commence their Service (1:18-21)
“18 At the end of the time, when the king had commanded that they should be brought in, the chief of the eunuchs brought them in before Nebuchadnezzar. 19 And the king spoke with them, and among all of them none was found like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. Therefore they stood before the king. 20 And in every matter of wisdom and understanding about which the king inquired of them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians and enchanters that were in all his kingdom. 21 And Daniel was there until the first year of King Cyrus”.
The final exam for the four young men was an oral test held by the king himself, very likely the senior palace wise men would have been in attendance with their list of questions. Daniel and his companions passed with flying colours, exceeding all others in the quality of their answers. The account brings to mind the promise of Jesus to the disciples regarding their being questioned by the authorities of their day: “Whenever you are arrested and brought to trial, do not worry beforehand about what to say. Just say whatever is given you at the time, for it is not you speaking, but the Holy Spirit” (Mark 13:11). The young men were “brought to trail,” and because they had honoured God, and their lives were dedicated in service to Him, the Holy Spirit was free to operate in their lives. The natural gifting of these bright young men was enhanced by the Holy Spirit. This should be the desire of all believers. Also, the promise of the Holy Spirit’s presence and guidance in times of persecution for our Christian convictions should be a comfort. Especially now, as we see Christian morals and values are increasingly under attack from the far-left extremists with their liberal agendas, and pressure is brought upon evangelicals to compromise their values by the corrupted ecumenical church.
The four Hebrew youths having excelled, and graduating at the top of their class, entered the king’s service and became part of the palace court. Their talents and rapid acceleration into the king’s favour would cause jealousy amongst their peers, a fact that becomes evident later in the narrative (2:49; 3:8; 6:3-4). Daniel will go on to serve not only in the Babylonian court, but also under the Medo-Persian rulers as well.
Summary of points
- The overriding message from this chapter, must be that no matter what situation a believer finds themselves in, they must walk in faith, keeping their relationship with God intact. Each believer must hold to the firm conviction that God has a plan and purpose for their lives, and that they will be able to shine even in the darkest of times.
- When everything depended on their fitting in and not making waves, when pressure was applied to jettison the past, Daniel and his friend stood for conviction not convenience. When we are pressured by life’s circumstances what will our response be? Will we compromise our moral values for selfish motives, or will we hold onto our convictions?
- There is a valuable lesson to be learned on Christian compromise: There is an important distinction that must be made between a “good compromise” and a “bad compromise”. Good compromise involves finding a middle ground between two conflicting parties, while a bad compromise involves giving up on one’s moral convictions for selfish reasons. Daniel successfully navigated the minefield of compromise, being flexible in the new culture he found himself in, yet being completely faithful to his covenant relationship with God.
- Our obedience to the word of God is worship of God, and brings blessings to our lives. True wisdom comes from spending time in God’s Word, enabling the Holy Spirit to bring to mind the correct Scriptures for every predicament a believer finds themselves in.
- Daniel shows his diplomatic skills that will bode him so well in his future career in the courts of kings, he resolves conflict with tact and gentleness, not with threats and confrontation. Daniel shows empathy and recognises the other person’s predicament, and is able to successfully come to a solution that benefits all concerned.